Risk of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, and Low-dose Aspirin Therapy in Peptic Ulcer Disease: A Case-control Study
Korean J Helicobacter Up Gastrointest Res 2019;19(1):42-47
Published online March 10, 2019
© 2019 Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research.

Seung In Seo, Jin Gu Kang, Hyoung Su Kim, Woon Geon Shin, Myoung Kuk Jang, Jin Heon Lee, Hak Yang Kim

Department of Internal Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hak Yang Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 150 Seongan-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 05355, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2224-2113, Fax: +82-2-2224-2647, E-mail: bacter@hallym.or.kr
Received November 1, 2018; Revised December 14, 2018; Accepted December 14, 2018.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research is an Open-Access Journal. All articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background/Aims: The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or low-dose aspirin therapy as a risk factor for peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) remains unclear. This study investigated the risk of PUB associated with H. pylori infection and NSAID or low-dose aspirin therapy in patients with PUD.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study investigated 340 patients with PUB between 2012 and 2016. The control group comprised age and sex-matched patients with endoscopically documented non-bleeding ulcers. Using logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated for the risk of PUB.
Results: Of the patients investigated, 57.9% in the study group and 51.8% in the control group were diagnosed with H. pylori infection (P=0.106). Logistic regression analysis showed synergistic interaction between H. pylori infection and low-dose aspirin therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that low-dose aspirin (AOR 3.92, P<0.001), NSAIDs (AOR 2.98, P=0.001), warfarin (AOR 14.57, P=0.011), gastric ulcer (compared with duodenal ulcer) (AOR 1.65, P=0.01), and smoking (AOR 1.97, P=0.004) increased the risk of PUB compared with the risk of PUD.
Conclusions: Both NSAIDs and aspirin are independent risk factors for bleeding in patients with PUD. Additionally, low-dose aspirin therapy concomitant with H. pylori infection produced a synergistic effect. Therefore, H. pylori eradication may be crucial in aspirin users. Moreover, a proton pump inhibitor should be prescribed in patients with a history of bleeding ulcers who need long-term NSAID treatment.
Keywords : Aspirin; Helicobacter pylori; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents; Peptic ulcer

March 2019, 19 (1)
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