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Korean J Helicobacter  Up Gastrointest Res > Volume 18(4); 2018 > Article
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter  and Upper Gastrointestinal Research 2018;18(4):225-230.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7704/kjhugr.2018.18.4.225    Published online December 10, 2018.
Risk Stratification for Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Bong Eun Lee 
Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea. bongsul@daum.net
상부위장관 출혈 환자에서 위험의 계층화와 이에 따른 치료 전략
이봉은
부산대학교 의학전문대학원 내과학교실
Correspondence:  Bong Eun Lee, Tel: +82-51-240-7869, Fax: +82-51-244-8180, 
Email: bongsul@daum.net
Received: 26 January 2018   • Revised: 9 April 2018   • Accepted: 13 April 2018
Abstract
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (UGIB) is the most common GI emergency, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early identification of low-risk patients suitable for outpatient management has the potential to reduce unnecessary costs, and prompt triage of high-risk patients could allow appropriate intervention and minimize morbidity and mortality. Several risk-scoring systems have been developed to predict the outcomes of UGIB. As each scoring system measures different primary outcome variables, appropriate risk scores must be implemented in clinical practice. The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) should be used to predict the need for interventions such as blood transfusion or endoscopic or surgical treatment. Patients with GBS ≤1 have a low likelihood of adverse outcomes and can be considered for early discharge. The Rockall score was externally validated and is widely used for prediction of mortality. The recently developed AIMS65 score is easy to calculate and was proposed to predict in-hospital mortality. The Forrest classification is based on endoscopic findings and can be used to stratify patients into high- and low-risk categories in terms of rebleeding and thus is useful in predicting the need for endoscopic hemostasis. Early risk stratification is critical in the management of UGIB and may improve patient outcome and reduce unnecessary health care costs through standardization of care.
Key Words: Risk stratification; Upper gastrointestinal bleeding


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