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Korean J Helicobacter  Up Gastrointest Res > Volume 11(2); 2011 > Article
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter  and Upper Gastrointestinal Research 2011;11(2):75-81.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7704/kjhugr.2011.11.2.75    Published online September 10, 2011.
Neuroendocrine Tumor in Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Hyo Keun Jeon, Hyun Soo Kim
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea. hyskim@yonsei.ac.kr
상부위장관 유암종
전효근, 김현수
연세대학교 원주의과대학 내과학교실 소화기내과
Gastric neuroendocrine tumor (GNET) is rare, but increasing in incidence. GNET may be classified into three types on the basis of the background pathology. Type I GNET is related to autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinemia. Type II is related to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-1, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and hypergastrinemia and sporadic Type III is not related to any background pathology. Type I GNETs can be considered as benign tumors with unusual metastases. However, type II may be related to distant metastases, which is also common in type III GNETs. Type I and type II lesions can be treated by endoscopic excision or somatostatin analogues whereas surgical treatment should be considered for type III lesions. Hypergastrinemia is an essential precondition for the evolution of type I and II lesions, but hypergastrinemia alone is not enough for explanation of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of type III neuroendocrine tumors is still poorly understood. Despite improvements in our knowledge of GNET pathogenesis in diagnostic approach and treatment, further investigations and large scale clinical studies are warranted.
Key Words: Neuroendocrine tumors; Atrophic gastritis; Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

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